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Glossary G : 1 - 50

Gypsy Ring

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A gypsy ring (also spelled gipsy) is a ring with a recessed stone or stones.  Also known as "star setting."

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Gutta Percha

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Gutta percha is a resin from the Isonandra Gutta tree.  Jewelry was made from gutta percha in the mid-1800's.  Gutta percha was also used to insulate electrical cables.  The Gutta percha company was founded by Dr.  Montgomerie in 1845 and was in business until 1930.

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Gunmetal

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Gunmetal is a metal alloy that is composed of 90 percent copper and 10 percent tin.

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Guilloche

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Guilloche is a type of enameling in which translucent enamel (fused glass) is applied over a metal surface that has been engraved.

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Grossular Garnet

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Grossular garnet is a type of garnet, calcium-aluminum silicate. Hessionite is a transparent brown, yellow, orange, or honey-colored variety of grossular garnet often used in jewelry. The yellow variety is called cinnamon stone, hyacinth or jacinth. Transvaal "jade" is a type of green to gray grossular garnet from South Africa. Pink grossular garnets varieties include landerite, rosolite, andXalostocite. Tsavorite is an emerald-green grossular garnet. Grossular garnet has a hardness of 6-7.5 and a specific gravity of 3.6.

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Grosse

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Grosse is a mark of the German jewelry company Henkel and Grosse.  Located in Pforzheim, Germany, this company has been in business since 1938.  Grosse has produced jewelry for Christian Dior since 1955.  Grosse also produces jewelry for Burberry's.  Later marks of Grosse have an acute accent on the final e, Grossé.

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Griqualandite

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Griqualandite is tiger's eye from Griqualand, South Africa.  It is a yellowish-brown to reddish-brown gemstone that has a silky luster.  This gemstone has bands of yellow and brown; when viewed from the opposite direction, the colors are reversed.  Tiger's eye is usually highly polished and set as a cabochon (or cut as a bead) to display the stone's chatoyancy (light reflected in thin bands within the stone).  Tiger's eye is a type of chatoyant quartz with fibrous inclusions (especially crocidolite).  This stone is sometimes heat-treated.  Tiger's eye has a hardness of 7.0.

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Grey Gold

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Grey gold is gold that has been alloyed with 15-20% iron.

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Grelot

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Grelots are small beads that have an elongated, pendant shape.

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Greenstone

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Greenstone is another name for nephrite, a semi-precious stone and a variety of jade.  Nephrite is slightly softer than jadeite and is often veined; it is used in carvings, for making beautiful bowls and vases.

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Green Gold

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Green gold is gold that has been alloyed with a higher percentage of silver than copper.

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Green Garnet

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Green garnets are Demantoid garnets, a valuable green, and very lustrous type of garnet. They are a rare variety of andradite. Demantoid garnets have characteristic inclusions that look like horsetails. Demantoid garnets has a hardness of 6-7 and a specific gravity of 3.8 - 3.9. Demantoids were very popular in the 1800's, but are rarely used today.

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Green Diamond

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Green diamonds are rare, fancy diamonds and are quite valuable. Diamonds are precious, lustrous gemstones made of highly-compressed carbon; they are one of the hardest materials known. Diamonds have a hardness of 10, a specific gravity of 3.5, and a refractive index of 2.417 - 2.419.

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Grape Garnet

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Grape garnets are a rare, intense violet to purple-red garnet. Grape garnets are made up of almandite and spessartite. They have a hardness of 7-7.5 and a specific gravity of 3.8 - 3.9. Grape garnets are found in the Orissa district of northwestern India.

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Gold Wash

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A thin application of gold applied to metal. The metal is dipped, burnished or electroplated with a very thin covering of gold.

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Gold Stone

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Goldstone (also known as aventurine) is a shimmering quartz stone that ranges in color from yellow to red to light green to light brown.  The shimmer is caused by tiny metallic particles (mica) within the stone (not gold).

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Gold Filled

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Gold filled (abbreviated GF  or written as "doublé d'or") jewelry is made of a thin outer layer of gold atop a base metal.  For example, jewelry marked 1/20 GF 12 Kt is at least 1/20th gold and is layered with 12 karat gold.  To be classified as gold-filled, a piece must be at least 1/20 gold by weight.

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Gold Dore

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Gold doré (pronounced gold doh-ray) is a bar of semi-purified gold (e.g. bullion).  After being mined, the first stage in the purification process of the gold ore produces a cast bar (gold dore) that is approximately 90% gold.  The other 10% is mostly metals like silver and copper.

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Givre

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A style of rhinestone or bead, which has variation in the rhinestones color like swirls or stripes creating a multi-coloration within the rhinestone.

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Gaspeite

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Gaspeite is a pale green to apple-green semi-precious gemstone that often has brown inclusions of its host rock. Gaspeite is translucent to opaque. This beautiful stone has only recently been used in jewelry, and is often set in silver. Gaspeite has a hardness of 4.5 - 5, and a specific gravity of 3.7. Gaspeite is Nickel Magnesium Iron Carbonate; its chemical formula is (Ni, Mg, Fe)CO3. This stone is found in Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (where it was originally found and from which it derives its name) and Kambalda and Widgie Mooltha, Western Australia, Australia.

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Garnet

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Type of Garnet Color of GemGrossular Colorless, orange, yellow, pink, or brownPyrope Colorless, pink, or redPyrope-Almadine Red-orange to red-purpleAlmandine-spessartine Red-orangeChrome pyrope Orange-redAlmandine Orange-red to purple-redHessonite Yellow-orange to redSpessartine Yellow-orangeTopazolite Yellow to orange-yellowMalaia Yellow to red-orange to brownAndradite Yellow-green to orange-yellow to blackDemantoid Green to yellow green andraditeTsavorite Green to yellow-greenPyrope-Spessartine Green-yellow to purpleColor-change garnet Blue green in sunlight; purple-red in incandescent lightTransvaal "jade" Bright green grossular garnetUvarovite Emerald greenGrape purpleRhodolite Purple-redXalostocite Pink grossular garnet. Garnets are any of a group of semi-precious silicate stones that range in color from red to green (garnets occur in all colors but blue). Some...

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Gahnospinel

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Gahnospinel is a rare blue spinel stone that is high in zinc and magnesium.  It can only be distinguished from most spinel by its high specific gravity and high refractive index.  Gahnospinel has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.97.  Its chemical formula is (Mg, Zn)Al2O4.

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Gagate

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Gagate (popularly known as jet) is fossilized coal. It is a hard, lustrous black stone that was used in mourning jewelry during the Victorian era (especially after Queen Victoria's husband died and she went into a long-lasting mourning, affecting fashion). Jet is frequently cabochon cut. Gagate has been mined near Whitby (on the Yorkshire coast of England) since prehistoric times. It is also found in Spain. France, Germany, and Russia, but these other sources are said to be inferior to the harder, more elastic Whitby jet. Jet/gagate has a hardness of 2.5-4 (quite soft) and a specific gravity of 1.30-1.35...

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Grain

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1. A grain is a unit of weight used for diamonds and natural pearls. Four grains are equal to one carat.2. A grain is a tiny sphere of metal.

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Graduated

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A graduated necklace of beads or pearls has beads that go from a small size in the back of the neck and gradually increase in size to a maximum in the front of the necklace.

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Gia

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GIA stands for the Gemological Institute of America.

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Goshenite

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Goshenite is the pure, colorless form of beryl (Be3AlSiO6, related to emerald and aquamarine). This hard, transparent gemstone is named for the town of Goshen, Massachusetts, where it was first found. Goshenite has been found in North and South America (especially Colombia), Northern Europe, East Africa, South Africa, and the Himalayan mountains in Asia. Goshenite has a hardness of 7.5 - 8.0 and a specific gravity of 2.6 - 2.8. It is not enhanced. Goshenite is sometimes coated with a green foil to resemble an emerald.

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Goldette

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Goldette is the mark of the Circle Jewelry Products Company, New York, New York, USA (owned by David Gartner).  The Goldette mark has been used since October, 1958.  Goldette made good quality jewelry often based on Victorian styles, featuring gold-tone metalwork, intaglio, and/or enamelwork.

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Gipsy Setting

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The glove ring has a clip on one end (for the gloves) and a chain with a clasp on the other end (to attach the device to a purse handle). GLYPTOGRAPHY Glyptography is the art of engraving gemstones, making intaglio and cameos. Stones are engraved using grindstones with powdered emory or diamond as an abrasive Karat Percent Gold 24 Kt. 100% Gold 18 Kt. 75% Gold 14 Kt. 58.3% Gold 12 Kt. 50% Gold 10 Kt. 41.7% GOLD Gold is a precious metal that is very soft when pure (24 Kt.). Gold is the most malleable (hammerable) and ductile (able...

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Gimmel Ring

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A gimmel ring is a double ring that was designed during the Renaissance.  It consists of two or more interlocking rings.  A gimmel ring symbolizes the union of two people.

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Gallery

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A gallery is a strip of metal that is perforated with a decorative pattern.  Open galleries can be adapted by jewelers to use as a ready-made claw setting for gemstones.

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Granulation

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Granulation is a method of decorating metal with tiny metallic spheres.  Tiny beads of metal are soldered to the surface to form a pattern.

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Gold Plated

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Gold Plated and Gold Filled jewelry is made by coating a less expensive metal with a thin layer of gold. Gold plating can wear off over time but it’s easy to re-gold plate jewelry. Gold-filled has more gold content than gold- plated jewelry.

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Gemstone Enhancement

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Gemstone Enhancement is any method used to alter the appearance of a gem. Heating, dying, and irradiating are typical techniques. Gem enhancement is used to draw out the maximum color, luster, clarity, and brilliance of gemstones.

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